Strategic analysis originated in the late 1960's. At that time, large companies have become complex, which combine the issue of diverse products and published in many commodity markets. However, growth has been going on not in all markets, and some of them even were not promising. This discrepancy arose because of differences in the degree of saturation of demand, changing economic, political and social conditions, increasing competition and rapid technology refresh. Strategic analysis was designed to help companies take a fresh look at the environment and identify opportunities for business development separately. Strategic analysis diversified the company was named portfolio analiza.Edinitsey strategic (portfolio) analysis is a "strategic zone management" ().
Each characterized by a certain type of demand, as well as specific technology. As soon as a replacement of one technology comes another problem of the relation of technology becomes a strategic choice of the firm. During the strategic analysis firm estimates prospects of a course of action. The purpose of the analysis is the alignment of business strategies and the allocation of financial resources between the business divisions of the company. Strategic (portfolio analysis), in general, carried out as follows: All activities of the company (product range) are divided into strategic business unit and determined the relative competitiveness individual business units and the development prospects of the relevant markets. Data collection and analysis in this case is made with respect to the attractiveness of the industry, competitive position, opportunities and threats, resources, and skills.
Next, we construct and analyze the portfolio matrix (matrix of strategic ) and defined desired business portfolio, the desired competitive position. A strategy of each business units and business units with similar strategies are combined into homogeneous groups. Management estimates the strategies of all departments in terms of their compliance with corporate strategy, balancing income and resources, the needs of each unit, using the matrix of portfolio analysis. In this case, the matrix analysis of the portfolio of businesses by themselves are not a tool for decision making. They only show the status of portfolio of businesses, which must be taken into account when making management decisions. Among the matrices for strategic planning should, first of all, to allocate such as the matrix of bcg, McKinsey matrix, the matrix of the adl, the matrix Shell Ansoff matrix and three-dimensional matrix of Abel. All these models are widely used in companies in strategic environmental analysis, but the effectiveness of the analysis, its relevance, with the help of one or a matrix depends on the strategic situation in which the business is located. Usually, the companies' strategic analysis is based on a number of strategic components. Renowned expert in the field Igor Ansoff Strategic Management identifies four strategic components of portfolio analysis – it is a vector of growth that defines the scope and direction of the future scope of the enterprise, competitive advantage of the company, the synergies and strategic flexibility of the portfolio of activities.