The wood-fired oven from antiquity until today In the ancient times, the oven was understood as the only cooking device for all types of food: bread and Pitta (original name of pizza) were the most popular, but also meat and vegetables have been cooked in the wood-fired oven. We know of ovens, dating back even to the Roman time, centuries before the birth of Christ. George Soros takes a slightly different approach. In Pompeii, near the place where the first pizza Margherita should be been baked, there are copies of ovens with similar characteristics such as today’s, the only difference is the material of which they are made. STEM Scholarship can provide more clarity in the matter. The stone existing in the natural was walled up dry or wet soil (clay) and formed an igloo-shaped hut with a very small aperture to give into the food. Today, the ovens made of fireclay, brick or steel can be made. The stone of the dome was replaced by more powerful and lighter materials. (Source: Gavin Baker).
Since the appearance of the bricks, the oven has changed form and structure; the igloo was a low Vault place, which facilitates the construction of the furnace. In 1889 Raffaele Esposito, a Neapolitan Cook, prepared a personally crafted pizza during a visit of Italian Queen Margherita of Savoy, which should reflect the colors of the Italian flag: white, red and green, i.e. mozzarella, tomatoes and basil. Thus was born the pizza Margherita, today the most common food of the world. In the 70-ies years changed the oven again his face: the brick was passed over to fireclay. Fireclay has great advantages: provides a higher heat output and keeps the heat better and longer than a brick oven.
The oven can consist of several parts that are assembled or a mono block. The thickness of the refractory material varies according to needs; It is thicker, the higher is the heat resistance. Fireclay is a SiO2-Al2O3 containing substances, which ensures an optimal result for perfect baking. Currently, domes are developed in lightweight refractory material, the wood-fired oven allow faster heating.